Dynamics relates to volume, measured in the log scale of Decibals, which relates to the intensity of sound compared with the standardized noise of 0dB which is the weakest hearable noise, and 120dB which is the pain threshold.
The notations for volume are:
- p standing for piano, meaning soft
- f standing for forte, meaning loud
- m standing for mezzo, such that mp means moderately soft and mf means moderately loud
- pp standing for pianissimo, meaning very soft
- ff standing for fortissimo, meaning very loud