1.A Sigma and Pi Bonds
Covalent bonds are created when 2 atoms share a pair of electrons, as already discussed in general chemistry. Usually, each nuclei donates 1 electron, but a coordinate covalent bond is when 1 nucleus donates BOTH electrons.
The sigma-bond is the 1st covalent bond formed, where the electrons are localized (i.e. always spend the most time right) between the nuclei.
The pi-bond is where the 2 nuclei form additional covalent bonds (apart from the 1st) with another pair of electrons, thereby forming a double/triple bond.
1.A.1 Hybrid orbitals (sp3, sp2, sp, and their respective geometries)
1.A.2 Valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory, predictions of shapes of molecules (e.g., NH3, H2O, CO2)
1.A.3 Structural formulas
1.A.4 Delocalized electrons and resonance in ions and molecules
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