# Introduction

When 2 straight lines cross each other, 4 angles are formed. We will call these a, b, c, d as per this diagram:

Vertically opposite angles are equal to each other. In other words, angles a=c, and b=d.

Why? We know angles on a straight line add up to 180°. That means $a+d=180\textdegree$. We also know that $d+c=180\textdegree$. We can reshuffle the first formula such that $d=180-a$, and the second formula to $d=180-c$. Therefore, we know that $180-a=180-c$. Simplifying, $-a=-c$, meaning $a=c$. Quod erat demonstrandum.

“Hey, what do those weird Greek letters mean?” Mandy asked.

“It’s telling other mathematicians you’ve set out what you intended to prove,” Jamie responded, “essentially a sign of relief!”

Angles such as a and c, or b and d are called vertically opposite, because they are opposite the vertex where the 2 lines meet.

Vertically opposite angles are equal to each other.